The insect suborder Heteroptera includes the true bugs. Here are a few facts about insects belonging to the suborder Heteroptera:
- Bugs (true bugs)
- Closely related to Homoptera. (Heteroptera and Homoptera are suborders of order Hemiptera)
- Front wing structure: basal portion thickened, apical portion is membranous
- Hind wings: membranous, shorter than front wings
- At rest, wings are held flat over abdomen, with membranous part of front wings overlapping.
- Mouthparts are piercing-sucking. Beak is arising from the front part of the head. Often extends back along the ventral side of the body (between legs).
- Many plant feeding species. Some species are predaceous. Some blood sucking species (can be vectors of diseases).
- Compound eyes usually well developed.
- Ocelli (two) are eiter present or absent.
- Antennae usually long.
- Many species produce strong smells from glands in the abdomen.
- Metamorphosis is simple. Usually 5 nymphal instars. Nymphs look very similar to adults (except for the wings).
The suborder Heteroptera is divided in a number of families. Some families containing a important agricultural pests are:
- Miridae = Plant bugs or Leaf bugs (= Capsidae: Capsids)
- Lygaeidae = Seed bugs
- Pyrrhocoridae = Red bugs or stainers
- Coreidae = Leaf-footed bugs or Twig wilters
- Tingidae = Lace bugs
- Pentatomidae = Stink bugs or Shield bugs